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Textile Coloration Technology
Textile Coloration Technology. Applications of Photochromic Dyes to Textiles. Digital Inkjet Printing Technology
Asda Stores Limited
From October 2010
Damascus University School of Textiles
March 2006 - December 2007
April 2005 - January 2006
Further Optimization of the Application of Photochromic Dyes to Textiles
On the basis of the results of the research described in my PhD thesis, further research can be envisaged in a variety of directions aiming at further optimisation of technical methods for applying the photochromic dyes and extending a number of final uses based on the methods investigated, as given in the examples below.
The investigation of UV-visible spectra of the commercial photochromic dyes in various solvents which was described in chapter 7 suggests the possibility that other solvents may introduce further improvement in the photochromic performance of photochromic dyes in terms of minimising the intensity of the colours of the dye solutions before UV exposure. Hence, further investigations of the media of application of photochromic dyes to textiles by the solvent-based dyeing method would be of value aiming at producing photochromic fabrics with minimum background colours. The optimum solvents may also offer advantages as solvents for formulation of photochromic inks for application by the digital inkjet printing method.
The successful application of the commercial photochromic dyes 1-6 to polyester fabric by the solvent-based dyeing method as discussed in chapter 4, and the improvement delivered in the photochromic performance of photochromic fabrics by applying these dyes to polyester fabric using toluene or ethyl acetate as application media, suggests the possibility that azospirooxazine dyes 2 and 3 may be successfully applied to polyester fabric by this dyeing method. Investigation of this process would involve following the application procedure given in section 4.2.4 but using ethyl acetate or toluene instead of dichloromethane. Further optimisation of the procedure may be envisaged depending on the investigations with a wider range of solvents. The photochromic fabrics produced by this method may have the potential to show photochromic colour changes between two states of different hues, opening the door to new fields of applications of the photochromic phenomenon in textiles.
In another respect, and in a similar way to the development of the lightfastness test method which is described in chapter 8, a new method for testing washfastness of photochromic and traditional dyes applied to textiles may be developed. For this purpose, in principle, the colour difference between each pair of colours of the grey scale, which is used for evaluation of washfastness of textiles according to the traditional method, is measured instrumentally and compared to the colour difference between washed and unwashed samples. The new method may have the potential to replace the conventional method of washfastness testing by a more accurate and less subjective instrumentally-based method. However, a detailed investigation and optimisation of this method would be required to evaluate the possibility of its application as a standard method of test for colour fastness to washing of textiles.
An Investigation of the Performance of Photochromic Dyes and their Application to Polyester and Cott
Six commercial photochromic dyes were applied to polyester and, to a lesser extent, cotton fabrics by different dyeing and printing methods. The photochromic performance of the dyed and printed fabrics was investigated in terms of the degree of photocoloration, background colour, fading characteristics, fatigue resistance and storage stability. A traditional aqueous-based disperse dyeing method was used to apply the photochromic dyes to polyester fabric. Solvent-based dyeing methods also were investigated for application of the photochromic dyes to polyester fabric. Solvent-based inks were formulated and applied to polyester and cotton fabrics by digital inkjet printing. The photochromic performance and colour fastness to light and washing of the photochromic fabrics were evaluated and comparison made. UV/visible spectra of the commercial photochromic dyes in a range of solvents were obtained and interpreted in terms of solvent polarity. On the basis of this study, the photochromic performance of the fabrics was improved by selecting the appropriate application solvents which transferred minimum background colours onto the fabrics. A new method of evaluating lightfastness of photochromic fabrics was established, aimed at replacing the conventional method by an instrumental method. This method was based on comparing the decrease in the degree of photocoloration of photochromic fabrics after light exposure with measured values of the colour differences of the blue wool references after fixed periods of light exposure. Two photochromic dyes were synthesized by azo coupling of a spironaphtho[2,1-b]oxazine with diazonium salts obtained from p-nitroaniline, and m-nitroaniline. Molecular modeling of the new photochromic systems, which are referred to as azospirooxazine dyes, showed that the dyes were predicted to have the potential to show photochromism. Thus, the photochromism of the azospirooxazine dyes in a range of solvents was investigated. The investigations showed that the dyes performed differently in different solvents in terms of the hue, the rate of the photochromic colour change and the colour reversibility.
Qualifications & Certifications
PhD, Functional and Intelligent Applications o f Colour
Heriot-Watt University, School of Textiles and Design
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